A ruptured spleen (a fist-sized organ located in the left upper abdomen) occurs when the surface of this organ is injured, which can lead to internal bleeding. Symptoms include pain in the abdomen and nausea. A ruptured spleen is treated with surgery if the patient has lost a large amount of blood. Appointments Removing part of the spleen. It might be possible to remove only part of your spleen, depending on the rupture. Partial splenectomy reduces the risk of infection that results from removing the entire spleen. Spleen surgery is generally safe, but any surgery has risks, .
A ruptured spleen occurs when the surface of this organ is injured, which can lead to internal bleeding. A ruptured spleen can potentially be life-threatening if it is not treated quickly. The spleen is an organ about the size of a fist, located in the left upper abdomen, near the stomach. The spleen is part of the lymphatic system, which helps fight infection and also filters the blood.
The surface of the spleen is protected by a layer of tissue called the capsule. An injury to this layer is usually associated with blunt trauma, but can also occur with conditions that cause splenomegaly an enlarged spleen.
The main symptom of a ruptured spleen is severe pain in the abdomen, especially on the left side. The pain may also be how to completely remove all browsing history to felt in the left shoulder, and can make breathing painful. Other symptoms, which are associated with a decrease in blood pressure due to internal bleeding, include:.
Often, if the patient is stable, an ultrasound or CT scan will be performed. Treatment of this condition depends on the severity of the injury. In the most extreme cases, in which a large amount of blood has been lost and the patient is critically ill, emergeny surgery to remove the spleen splenectomy is necessary. If the injury to the spleen is not severe, then less invasive measures can be taken. This approach involves admitting the patient to the hospital and closely observing him or her.
Vital signs and blood counts are also closely monitored, and a CT scan may be performed for further evaluation. Most of these patients will not need to have their spleen removed. Obviously, a ruptured spleen caused by a traumatic injury cannot be prevented. However, if you have a condition that may cause your spleen to swell — including mononucleosis — then you should avoid activities that could increase your risk of an injury to the spleen, such as contact sports.
Once the spleen is removed, or has healed, most people can live a normal life. After removal, other organs, including the liver, will take over the functions of the spleen. However, patients who have undergone a splenectomy are at an increased risk of developing infections and must take precautions, such as staying up to date on the recommended immunizations, including a yearly flu shot.
Cleveland What to engrave on a watch is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Beat making how its supposed to be done Spleen A ruptured spleen a fist-sized organ located in the left upper abdomen occurs when the surface of this organ is injured, which can lead to internal bleeding.
Symptoms include pain in the abdomen and nausea. A ruptured spleen is treated with surgery if the patient has lost a large amount of blood. Appointments Symptoms and Causes What causes a ruptured spleen?
Injuries to the spleen can be caused by: Car, motorcycle or bicycle accidents Contact sports such as football Assault Diseases that can increase the risk of splenic rupture include: Infections such as mononucleosis or malaria Cancers, such as lymphoma, that lead to an enlarged spleen Metabolic disorders Liver disease What are the symptoms of a ruptured spleen?
Other symptoms, which are associated with a decrease in blood pressure due to internal bleeding, include: Feeling lightheaded Confusion Fainting Restlessness Nausea Blurred vision. Diagnosis and Tests How is a ruptured spleen diagnosed? Management and Treatment How is a ruptured spleen treated?
Prevention Can a ruptured spleen be prevented? Show More.
Anatomy of the Spleen
Jan 29, · The symptoms of a ruptured spleen are often accompanied by other signs of injury caused by blunt trauma to the abdomen. Examples of Author: Markus Macgill. Because you begin to hemorrhage heavily when your spleen ruptures, it is necessary to have emergency surgery in order to prevent the life-threatening blood loss associated with a ruptured spleen. This surgery is known as a splenectomy and results in the complete removal of your spleen. Jul 01, · Usually when the spleen is removed, other organs such as the liver can take over most of the functions of the spleen. But because the spleen is important for the body’s defense against germs, the patient is at a higher risk of infection after the operation.
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Create a personalised ads profile. Select personalised ads. Apply market research to generate audience insights. Measure content performance. Develop and improve products. List of Partners vendors. The spleen is a small organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen under the ribcage well above and far left of the belly button. If you could see the spleen, it looks purple and squishy.
It's considered a solid organ, meaning it's not hollow like a bladder or a stomach. Its consistency is more like a small version of the liver. The full function of the spleen is still under debate, but we do know it plays a major role in the immune system. Half of the spleen tissue is called the red pulp and is responsible for filtering out old and damaged red blood cells, and acts as a reservoir for platelets and red blood cells.
The other tissue is the white pulp, which produces antibodies and is connected to the lymphatic system. A ruptured spleen refers to bleeding into the abdominal cavity from a torn or lacerated spleen.
Most spleen damage is due to traumatic injury, but it can occur spontaneously if the spleen is inflamed or diseased. All of the circulation of blood and lymph through the spleen makes it a prime candidate for bleeding if injured. Of patients with traumatic injuries to multiple body systems, 10 to 12 percent have abdominal trauma.
In a trauma patient with an injury to the abdomen, the most common symptoms of a ruptured spleen are pain and tenderness of the abdomen, particularly on the left upper quadrant. As blood enters the abdominal cavity, it can lead to a symptom known as referred pain. This is pain that the patient feels somewhere other than where the injury is located. In the case of a ruptured spleen, the most common referred pain is felt in the left shoulder or left side of the chest wall.
Since the spleen is so rich with blood flow, bleeding from a rupture can be significant. If left untreated, bleeding from a ruptured spleen can very quickly lead to hypovolemia when plasma portion of the blood is too low and shock a medical condition that decreases blood flow to the brain.
As the circulatory system struggles to get blood to important areas such as the brain, the patient can experience sweating, lightheadedness, fatigue, confusion, and eventually unconsciousness. Blunt trauma is the type of trauma that does not directly penetrate the skin, like a stabbing or gunshot wound. Penetrating trauma is less common, but can also lead to a ruptured spleen.
In rare cases, a ruptured spleen can occur spontaneously without trauma. The spleen can become inflamed and enlarged from infection, cancer, or other diseases. The disease that is often associated with a non-traumatic ruptured spleen is mononucleosis, even though the incidence of a ruptured spleen occurs in an estimated. Malaria is another infectious disease associated with a ruptured spleen.
Other than the lack of a trauma history, the symptoms of a spontaneously ruptured spleen are similar to those caused by injury. A strong clinical assessment with a focused history, a mechanism of injury , and physical exam may provide a high index of suspicion for diagnosis, but a ruptured spleen can't always be ruled out from just a clinical assessment. Ultrasound is an option but still cannot rule out a ruptured spleen adequately. If available, a CT scan is the best option for evaluating the abdomen and diagnosing a ruptured spleen in a clinically stable patient.
Non-surgical management of a ruptured spleen is the primary option for treatment as long as the patient's blood pressure is stable and there is not severe bleeding. Close monitoring, bed rest, and blood pressure control are used to give the spleen time to heal. For patients that come to the hospital with stable blood pressures, non-surgical treatment is very successful. Some hospitals may try interventional radiological treatment for ruptured spleens. This is a relatively recent option and is not always available.
Depending on the severity of the ruptured spleen and how stable the blood pressure is, the patient may have to have surgery. If the spleen is removed, the patient may have to take a series of vaccinations to boost immune function after surgery. A ruptured spleen is a serious condition whether it comes from trauma or not.
If you have left shoulder pain following an injury to the abdomen—especially if there wasn't any trauma to the shoulder—be sure to seek emergency medical care. The most important treatment for a ruptured spleen is an early diagnosis.
Whether the ruptured spleen is going to be treated with or without surgery, the earlier that decision can be made the better. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. Splenic implant assessment in trauma. Chirurgia Bucur. Updated October 1, Won A, Ethell A. Spontaneous splenic rupture resulted from infectious mononucleosis. Int J Surg Case Rep. Computed tomography of blunt spleen injury: a pictorial review.
Malays J Med Sci. Zarzaur B, Rozycki G. An update on nonoperative management of the spleen in adults. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. Updated May Updated April Akoury T, Whetstone DR. Splenic Rupture. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen operated in gynecological unit mistaken for ruptured hemorrhagic ovarian cyst: total splenectomy.
Pan Afr Med J. Published Nov Patterson JW, Dominique E. Acute Abdomen. Pathological rupture of the normal spleen: Review with the literature. Your Privacy Rights. To change or withdraw your consent choices for VerywellHealth. At any time, you can update your settings through the "EU Privacy" link at the bottom of any page. These choices will be signaled globally to our partners and will not affect browsing data.
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