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Haitian Creole (/ ? h e? ? ?n ? k r i? o? l /; Haitian Creole: kreyol ayisyen; French: creole haitien), commonly referred to as simply Creole, is a French-based creole language spoken by 10–12 million people worldwide, and is one of the two official languages of Haiti, where it is the native language of a majority of the population.. The language emerged from contact between French. Learn kitesurf with an internationally recognized certification anywhere in the world with dedicated instructors in IKO kite schools, reach confidence with the safest methods.
The language emerged from contact between French settlers and enslaved Africans during the Atlantic slave trade in the French colony of Saint-Domingue now Haiti. Although its vocabulary is mostly taken from phonetic 18th-century French, its grammar and sentence structure is that of a West African language, paticularly the Fon language and Igbo language.
Haitians are the largest community in the world kitf a modern creole language. Usage of, and education in, Haitian Creole has been contentious since at least the 19th century; some Haitians view French as a legacy of colonialism, while Creole was maligned by francophones as a miseducated person's French.
The word creole comes from a Portuguese term that means "a person raised kit one's house", from the Latin crearewhich means "to create, make, bring forth, produce, beget". Haitian Creole contains elements from both the Romance group of Indo-European languages through its superstratumFrenchas well as African languages.
One theory estimates that Haitian Creole developed between and In the 18th century haitiqn estimatedWest-African individuals were enslaved and brought to Saint-Domingue. Many African slaves in French ownership were from Niger-Congo -speaking territory, and particularly from Kwa languages such as Gbe and the Central Tano languages and Bantu languages.
With the constant importation of slaves, the language gradually became formalized and became a distinct tongue to French. The language was also picked up by the whites and became used by all those born in what is now Haiti.
Haitian Creole and French have similar pronunciations and share many lexical items. For example, in Haitian Creole, verbs are not conjugated as they are in French. Both Haitian Creole and French have also experienced semantic change ; words that had a single meaning in the 17th century have changed or have been replaced in both languages.
Lefebvre proposed the theory of relexificationarguing that the process of relexification the replacement of the phonological representation of a substratum lexical item with the phonological representation of a superstratum lexical item, so that the Haitian creole lexical hiatian looks like French, but works like the substratum language s was central in the development of Haitian Creole.
The Fon languagea modern Gbe language native to BeninNigeria and Togo in West Africais often used to compare grammatical structure between Haitian Creole [ clarification needed ] and to relexify it with vocabulary from French: . Haitian Creole developed in the 17th and how to cook pork ribs in pressure cooker centuries in the colony of Saint-Dominguein a setting that mixed native speakers of various Niger—Congo languages with French haitlan.
Ormonde McConnell developed a standardized Haitian Creole orthography. Although some regarded the orthography highly, it was generally not ,ake received.
That same year Haitian Creole was elevated in status by the Act of 18 September For example, the hyphen - is no longer used, nor is the apostrophe. The Constitution of upgraded Haitian Creole to a national language alongside French. The Constitution of names both Haitian Creole and French as the official languages, but recognizes Haitian Creole as the how to block unknown text messages iphone language that all Haitians hold in common.
Even without government recognition, by the end of the 19th century, there were already literary texts written in Haitian Creole such as Oswald Durand 's Choucoune and Georges Sylvain 's Cric? Since the s, many educators, writers, and activists have written literature in Haitian Creole.
It was the first time a collection of Haitian Creole poetry was published in both Haitian Creole and English. Although both modern standard French and Haitian Creole are official languages in Haitistandard French is often considered the high language and Haitian Creole as the low language in the diglossic relationship of these two languages in society.
There is a large population in Haiti that speaks only Haitian Creole, whether under formal or informal conditions:. In most schools, French is still the preferred language for teaching. Generally speaking, Haitian Creole is more used in public schools,  as that is where most children of ordinary families who speak Haitian Creole attend school.
Historically, the education system has been Haitkan. Except the children uow elites, many had to drop out of school because learning French was very challenging to them and they had a hard time to follow up. After the earthquake inbasic education became free and more accessible to the monolingual masses. Haitian Creole ot a phonemic orthography with highly regular spelling, except for proper nouns and foreign words. The first technical orthography for Haitian Creole was developed in by H.
Ormonde McConnell and his wife, Primrose. It was later revised with the help of Frank Laubach, resulting in the creation of what is known as the McConnell—Laubach orthography. The McConnell—Laubach orthography received substantial criticism from members of the Haitian elite. Haitian scholar Charles Pressoir critiqued the McConnell—Laubach what going on with north and south korea for its lack of codified front rounded vowelswhich are typically used only by francophone elites.
The creation of the orthography was essentially an articulation of the language ideologies of those involved and brought out political and social tensions between competing groups. A large portion of this tension lay in the ideology held by many that the French language is superior, which led to resentment of the language by some Haitians and an admiration for it from others. When Haiti was still a colony of France, edicts by the French government were often written in a French-lexicon creole and read aloud to the slave population.
Before Haitian Creole orthography was standardized in the late 20th century, spelling varied, but was based on subjecting spoken Haitian Creole to written French, a language whose spelling has a complicated relation to pronunciation.
Unlike the phonetic orthography, French orthography of Haitian Creole is not standardized haitia varies according to the writer; some use exact French spelling, others adjust the spelling of certain words to represent pronunciation of the cognate in Haitian Creole, removing the silent letters. For example: Li ale travay nan maten lit. Haitian Creole grammar is highly analytical: for example, verbs are not inflected for tense or person, and there is no how to make a haitian kite genderwhich means that adjectives and articles are not inflected according to the noun.
The primary hoe order is subject—verb—object as it is in French and English. Many grammatical features, particularly the pluralization maek nouns and indication of possession, are indicated by appending certain markers, like yoto the main word. There has been a debate going on for some years as to whether these markers are affixes or cliticsand if punctuation such as the hyphen should be used to too them to the word.
Although the language's vocabulary has many words related to their What is transplanting in agriculture cognates, its sentence structure is like that of the West African Fon language. There are six pronouns: first, second, and third person, each in both singular, and plural; all are of French etymological origin.
Definite nouns are made plural when followed by the word yo ; indefinite plural nouns are unmarked. Possession is indicated by placing the possessor or possessive pronoun after the item possessed. In the Capois dialect of northern Haiti, a or an is placed before the possessive pronoun. Possession does not indicate definiteness "my friend" as opposed to "a friend of mine"and possessive constructions are often followed by a definite article.
Yon is derived uow the French il y a un "there is a". Both are used only with singular nouns, and are placed before the noun:.
In Haitian Creole, the definite how to do compound intrest has five forms,  : 28 and it is placed after the noun it modifies. The final syllable of the preceding word determines which form the definite article takes.
If the last sound is an oral consonant and is preceded by a haitiab vowelthe definite article is lan :. If the last sound is an how to brighten highlighted hair vowel and is preceded by an oral consonantthe definite article is a :.
If the last sound is any oral vowel other than i or hoe and is preceded by a nasal consonantthen the definite article is also a:. If a word ends in mimouninouor if it ends with any nasal vowelthen the definite article is an :. If the last sound is a nasal consonantthe definite article is nanbut may also be lan :. As in English, it may be used as a demonstrativeexcept that it is placed after the noun that it qualifies.
It is often followed by a or yo in order to mark number : sa a "this here" or "that there" :. Many verbs in Haitian Creole are the same spoken words as the French infinitivebut there is no conjugation in the language; the verbs have one form only, and changes in tensemoodand aspect are indicated by the use of markers :. The concept expressed in English by the verb "to be" is expressed in Haitian Creole by three words, seyeand sometimes e.
The verb se pronounced similarly to the English word "say" is used to link a subject with a predicate nominative :. The subject sa or li can sometimes be omitted with se : [ clarification needed ]. To express "I want to be", usually vin "to become" is used instead of se. Ye also means "to be", but is placed exclusively at the end of a sentence, after the predicate and the subject in that order :.
Haitian Creole has stative verbswhich means that the verb "to be" is not overt when followed by an adjective. Therefore, malad means both "sick" and " to be sick ":.
The verb "to have" is genyenoften shortened to gen. The verb genyen or gen also ot "there is" or "there are":. The Haitian Creole word for "to know" and "to know how" is konnenwhich is often shortened to konn. It has a broad range of meanings, as it is one of the most common verbs used in idiomatic phrases.
The verb kapab or shortened to ka haiyian, kap or kab means "to be able to do something ". It refers to both "capability" and "availability":. There is no conjugation in Haitian Creole. In the present non-progressive tense, one just uses the basic verb form for stative verbs :. When the basic form of action verbs is used without any verb markersit is generally understood as referring to the past:.
Manje means both "food" and "to eat", as manger does in Canadian French [ citation needed ] ; m ap manje bon manje means "I am eating good food". For other tensesspecial "tense marker" words are placed before the verb. The basic ones are:. Simple past or past perfect :. Past progressive :.
Present progressive :. For the present progressiveit is customary, though not necessary, to add kounye a "right now" :. Also, ap manje can mean "will eat" depending on the context haittian the sentence:. A verb mood marker is tacorresponding to English "would" and equivalent to the French conditional tense:.
The word pa comes before a verb and any tense markers to negate it:. Most of the lexicon of Creole is derived from French, with significant changes in pronunciation and morphology ; often the French definite article how to make a haitian kite retained as part of the noun. For example, the French definite article la in la haaitian "the moon" was incorporated into the Creole noun for moon: lalin.
However, the language also inherited many words of different origins, among them WolofFonKongoEnglish, Spanish, PortugueseTaino and Arabic. Haitian Creole creates and borrows new words to describe new or old concepts and realities.
There are what is civil suit case other Haitian Creole terms for specific tones of skin including grimobrenrozand mawon. Some Haitians consider such labels as offensive because of their association with color discrimination and the Haitian class system, while others use the terms freely.
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Mar 23, · Of Haitian descent, he emphasizes traditional Haitian cuisine and global BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, People of Color) cuisine from around the world. Kites Too! - FLAG, BANNER and KITE . Synonyms for feedback include response, evaluation, input, opinion, reaction, advice, assessment, comment, commentary and criticism. Find more similar words at. Some scheduled Riverstage events are being postponed or cancelled to help stop the spread of COVID For event updates search our Riverstage events calendar or visit the Ticketmaster website.. The following events have been postponed due to the ongoing conditions of coronavirus and are awaiting new dates to be announced.
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